Pulp capping is a dental restoration treatment that prevents the dental pulp from necrosis after it has been exposed, or almost exposed, during cavity preparation, a traumatic injury, or a deep cavity that reaches the middle of the tooth, causing the pulp to die. All or most of the diseased and weakened enamel and dentin are removed when dental caries is removed from a tooth. Pulpitis can result if the pulp of the tooth is exposed or almost exposed as a result of this (inflammation).Pulpitis can then become permanent, resulting in discomfort and pulp necrosis, needing root canal therapy or extraction. The ultimate goal of pulp capping, also known as progressive caries reduction, is to preserve a healthy tooth pulp and avoid root canal surgery.
When a dental restoration comes close to the pulp, the dentist will apply a little quantity of sedative dressing, such as calcium hydroxide or MTA, to prevent the pulp from degrading. These components shield the pulp from harmful agents (heat, cold, germs) and encourage the pulp’s cell-rich zone to lay down a dent in bridge. Dentin development normally begins within 30 days post pulp capping and is nearly complete by 130 days.
There are two main types of pulp caps. In direct pulp capping, a thin layer of softened dentin is left in place and the protective dressing is placed on top of an exposed pulp; in indirect pulp capping, a thin layer of softened dentin is left in place and the protective dressing is placed on top of an exposed pulp. A direct pulp cap is a one-step operation, whereas stepwise caries removal is a two-step technique that takes roughly six months to complete.